An illustrative representation of the Tech Cold War, depicting a globe divided into digital segments with icons symbolizing technology and economics, signifying the global impact of the U.S.-China technological rivalry.

In the turbulent waters of the 21st-century global economy, a significant transformation is underway. The rise of China as a global economic powerhouse and the ensuing Tech Cold War (TCW) between the United States and China represent a tectonic shift in international relations and economics. This period, marked by intense geopolitical rivalry and strategic maneuvering, is reshaping the fabric of international business (IB) and global trade. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for navigating the complex landscape of modern global economics.

The Rise of China and the Onset of the Tech Cold War

The trajectory of the world economy in recent years has been significantly influenced by China’s meteoric rise. The nation’s swift economic advancement and its assertive participation in global governance bodies like the WTO, IMF, and World Bank have redrawn the geopolitical map. This ascent has not gone unnoticed by global superpowers, particularly the United States, leading to a series of escalating tensions and conflicts.

The U.S.-China trade conflict, which began in earnest in 2018, rapidly escalated into a full-scale Tech Cold War by 2019. This new era marked the cessation of a prolonged period of cooperation and exchange between the U.S. and China, a cornerstone of the previous era of hyper-globalization. This geopolitical chess game has led to a new form of techno-nationalism, fundamentally altering the landscape of international business research and practice. The implications of this shift are profound, extending beyond the two superpowers to affect global economic policies, technological advancements, and international trade practices​​.

Global North vs. Global South: A Diverging Worldview

The geopolitical rivalry between the U.S. and China is not a binary narrative; it has broader implications, particularly for countries in the Global South. This divide, rooted in historical exploitation and colonialism, has led to differing perspectives on global governance and international norms. The Global South, representing a significant portion of the world’s population and economic activity, has long expressed dissatisfaction with principles and practices imposed by the Global North. These sentiments are increasingly relevant in today’s multipolar world, where the voices and interests of these nations are demanding greater recognition and influence. This scenario underscores the need for a more inclusive and representative global multilateral architecture, one that genuinely reflects the diverse realities and aspirations of the modern world​​.

Multipolarization of the World Economy

The current global economic landscape is characterized by a shift from a unipolar to a multipolar world, where alliances and partnerships are fluid and based on shifting interests rather than permanent alignments. This multi polarization is profoundly affecting the strategies and operations of multinational enterprises (MNEs). MNEs are now required to navigate a more complex and varied geopolitical landscape, where government policies and national interests play a pivotal role in shaping business environments and international trade. The changing dynamics in the global economy are evident in the rise of emerging markets and their increasing contribution to global GDP, challenging the traditional dominance of the G7 economies. This evolution suggests either a bifurcation or a multi polarization of the world economy, with significant implications for international business practices and global economic policies​​.

Implications for International Business

  1. Nonmarket Influences: The transition from an era of hyper-globalization to one characterized by significant nonmarket influences marks a departure from the previous paradigm. National borders and government policies are increasingly crucial in determining business practices and international trade. The assumption of a globally integrated, “flat” world, popularized by thinkers like Thomas Friedman, is no longer tenable in this new era. Government-imposed export controls, sanctions, and industrial policies are shaping the international business landscape, necessitating a reevaluation of traditional business strategies and models​​.
  2. Springboard Internationalization: The concept of springboard internationalization, which describes the outward foreign direct investment strategies of emerging market MNEs (EMMNEs), is transforming. In a world marked by bifurcation and multi polarization, EMMNEs face new hurdles as governments increasingly impose restrictions on foreign acquisitions and strategic assets. This changing landscape demands innovative approaches to internationalization, where nonmarket factors such as government policies play a pivotal role in shaping investment decisions and business strategies​​.
  3. Government-MNE Relationships: The relationship between governments and MNEs is becoming increasingly intricate and significant. In the earlier phases of international business research, focus was often placed on whether these relationships were complementary or conflicting. However, in the current geopolitical climate, characterized by tensions and strategic rivalries, the interplay between national policies and MNE strategies has become more complex and critical. The Tech Cold War, alongside other disruptive global events like the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical conflicts, has brought renewed attention to the dynamics between nation-states, their governments, and multinational corporations​​.
  4. Cultural Change and Ideological Differences: In the context of the Tech Cold War and global multi polarization, cultural factors, and ideological differences are emerging as significant nonmarket forces. The expansion of the BRICS bloc as an alternative to the G7 underscores the need to consider cultural perspectives and diverging visions of world order in international business research. The role of media, stakeholders, public institutions, and governments in shaping these narratives is crucial. Understanding these geopolitical and cultural dynamics is essential for comprehending the complexities of modern international business practices​​.


The Tech Cold War and the evolving multipolar world economy present a complex and challenging landscape for international business. Adapting to these changes is crucial for businesses and governments alike. As the global economic landscape continues to evolve, understanding and navigating these dynamics will be key to success in the international arena.


Tung, R. L., Zander, I., & Fang, T. (2023). The Tech Cold War, the multi polarization of the World Economy, and IB Research. International Business Review, 32(6), 102195.

  1. AlanBZ 5 months ago

    The Tech Cold War between the U.S. and China is intensifying the complexities of international business and global trade, marking a pivotal shift in global economic dynamics that necessitates a nuanced understanding of the evolving multipolar world. This transformation underscores the importance of strategic adaptability for businesses and nations navigating the intricacies of this new geopolitical landscape.

  2. kriterii_dmEr 4 months ago

    I haven’t seen any big market moves yet. The only thing that’s happening is that US is building it’s own factories. What about the rest of the world?

  3. Mxmax 4 months ago

    China vs USA – they should play a soccer game and settle based on the outcome.

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